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Which of the following Cases Is an Example of Agreement of Ethics and Laws

D) Refusal of disqualification. Instead of withdrawing from the proceedings, a judicial judge disqualified by canon 3C(1) may, except in the circumstances expressly set out in paragraphs (a) to (e), record the basis for the disqualification. The judge may participate in the proceedings if, after such disclosure, the parties and their lawyers have the opportunity to deliberate outside the presence of the judge, all in writing or in the record that the judge should not be disqualified, and the judge is then willing to participate. The agreement should be recorded in the minutes of the proceedings. Here are some steps that researchers like Dr. Wexford can take to address ethical dilemmas in research: Canon 3A (5). When handling cases quickly, efficiently and fairly, a judge must give due consideration to the right of the parties to be heard and to resolve problems without unnecessary costs or delays. A judge should monitor and supervise cases to reduce or eliminate delay practices, avoidable delays and unnecessary costs. A judge should avoid conferring the prestige of a judicial office in order to promote the private interests of the judge or others.

For example, a judge should not use his or her position or title as a judge to gain an advantage in a dispute involving a friend or family member. In contracts for the publication of a judge`s writings, the judge should retain control of publicity in order to avoid the operation of his or her office. After all, there are often situations in research where different people disagree on the right course of action and there is no broad consensus on what to do. In these situations, there may be good arguments on both sides of the problem and different ethical principles may conflict with each other. These situations lead to difficult decisions for research, known as ethical or moral dilemmas. Consider the following case: If a judge finds that an organization to which he belongs is showing vicious discrimination that would prevent membership under canon 2C or canons 2 and 2A, the judge may, instead of resigning, make immediate and continuous efforts to get the organization to end its vicious discriminatory practices. If the organization does not put an end to its malicious discriminatory practices as soon as possible (and in any case within two years of the judge`s first knowledge of the practices), the judge must immediately withdraw from the organization. Many different disciplines, institutions and professions have standards of conduct that correspond to their respective goals and objectives. These standards also help members of the discipline coordinate their actions or activities and build public confidence in the discipline. For example, ethical standards govern behaviour in medicine, law, engineering and business.

Ethical standards also serve the purposes or objectives of research and apply to persons conducting scientific research or other scientific or creative activities. There is even a specialized discipline, research ethics, that studies these standards. See the glossary of terms commonly used in research ethics. Ms Carlill sued the maker of the carbolic smoke ball – a device used to prevent colds and flu – who promised a £100 reward for anyone who contracted the flu after using their product, but then refused to pay. Second, since research often involves a high level of collaboration and coordination between many different people in different disciplines and institutions, ethical standards promote values essential to collaborative work, such as trust, responsibility, mutual respect and fairness. For example, many ethical standards in research, such as authorship guidelines, copyright and patent policies, data exchange policies, and peer-reviewed confidentiality rules, are designed to protect the interests of intellectual property while fostering collaboration. Most researchers want recognition for their contributions and don`t want their ideas stolen or disclosed prematurely. There are many other activities that the government does not define as “misconduct,” but are still considered unethical by most researchers. These are sometimes referred to as “other deviations” from acceptable research practices and include: According to “stressful” or “imperfect” environmental theory, misconduct occurs because various institutional burdens, incentives, and constraints encourage people to commit wrongdoing, such as .B. Pressure to publish or obtain scholarships or contracts, professional ambitions, profit or fame seeking, poor supervision of students and trainees, and poor supervision of researchers (see Shamoo and Resnik 2015).

In addition, proponents of stressful environmental theory point out that science`s peer review system is far from perfect and that it is relatively easy to fool the system. Erroneous or fraudulent searches often enter public records without being discovered for years. Misconduct is likely to result from environmental and individual causes, that is, when morally weak, ignorant or insensitive people are placed in stressful or imperfect environments. In all cases, a research ethics course can be helpful in preventing deviations from standards, even if it does not prevent misconduct. Research ethics training can help people better understand ethical standards, policies and issues, and improve ethical judgment and decision-making. Many of the gaps that occur in research can occur because researchers simply do not know some of the ethical standards of research or have never seriously thought about them. For example, some unethical authorship practices may reflect traditions and practices that have not been seriously challenged until recently. If the director of a laboratory is appointed as the author on every work that comes from his laboratory, even if he does not make a significant contribution, what is wrong with that? That`s how it`s done, one might say. Another example where there may be ignorance or false traditions is that of conflicts of interest in research. A researcher might think that a “normal” or “traditional” financial relationship, such as the acceptance of shares or consulting fees from a pharmaceutical company sponsoring their research, does not raise serious ethical questions. Or maybe a university administrator doesn`t see an ethical problem with taking a big gift with conditions from a pharmaceutical company. Perhaps a doctor thinks it is entirely appropriate to get a $300 intermediation fee to refer patients to a clinical trial.

These actions would be considered unethical by most scientists and some might even be illegal in some cases. Most of them also allegedly violate different codes of ethics or institutional guidelines. However, they do not fall into the narrow category of measures that the government characterizes as research misconduct. In fact, there has been considerable debate about the definition of “misconduct in research,” and many researchers and policymakers are not satisfied with the government`s narrow definition of PFF. However, given the huge list of potential crimes that could fall into the category of “other serious gaps” and the practical problems with defining and tracking these other gaps, it is understandable that government officials have chosen to limit their scope. A statement like this in a curriculum could send a multi-pronged message: survivors will be supported and given the information they need to report any violence they have experienced or experienced, and that the campus community as a whole will monitor and hold perpetrators accountable. It`s an easy way to start a discussion about ethics, ethical decision-making, and the law to show how important it is in your classroom. In a case from Scotland, Ms Donoghue was given a bottle of ginger beer, which is believed to contain the decomposed remains of a snail. She claimed to have suffered shock and gastroenteritis as a result. But since she hadn`t bought the drink herself, she didn`t have a contract to sue for. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau has an interesting perspective on how we have moved from a “natural state” of ethics to formal laws. According to Rousseau, people initially lived a solitary and simple life, with their few needs easily satisfied by nature.

Due to the abundance of nature and the small size of the population, there was no competition, people rarely saw each other; therefore had far fewer reasons for conflict, fear or a tendency to harm each other. A plausible explanation for these disagreements is that all people recognize certain common ethical norms, but interpret, apply, and balance them in different ways in light of their own values and life experiences. For example, two people might agree that murder is wrong, but disagree about the morality of abortion because they have different ideas about what it means to be a human being. .