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Agreement On Agriculture (Aoa) Covers Aspects

Non-trade concerns include issues such as consumer interests, livelihoods and the environment. The proposals range from the creation of a specific development box to the modification of the agreement to take into account the different advantages of agriculture. In low-income countries, agriculture employs more than 70% of the population, 30% in middle-income countries and only 4% in high-income countries. Between 1990 and 1996, agriculture accounted for 34% of GDP in low-income countries, 8% in middle-income countries and 1.5% in high-income countries. Agriculture provides least developed countries (LDCs) with 34% of their exports, compared to 8.3% for developed countries. Smallholder farmers in South Korea are suffering from increased imports of agricultural goods and decreased state support. Overall, since 1997, they have been paying more for inputs and receiving less for their production. While it is impossible to separate this phenomenon from the consequences of the 1997 economic crash, the restrictions imposed by the AoAs on domestic aid and trade safeguards may have worsened the situation. South Korea`s high domestic aid and intensive form of agriculture make its smallholder farmers vulnerable to the loss of subsidies, which amounted to $6443 million in 1996 (about 5% of total domestic support spending by WTO members). At the same time, since 1993, the government itself has been buying less rice than a partial step in meeting national aid reduction requirements. While the price of rice has become more volatile since the beginning of this cereal policy, the government continues to release rice from its stocks if necessary to stabilize prices. Many of the thirteen countries analysed here are low-income countries, such as Chad, which employs about 70% of the population mainly in agriculture, and Mali, where 40% of GDP comes from agriculture. It also looks at OECD countries such as Poland and South Korea, where agriculture accounts for only 6% of GDP.

The 60% of Ghana`s workforce working in agricultural agriculture in Ghana is mainly active in cocoa and food production. Cocoa is the main agricultural export product, although the government has tried to diversify its export base, including by encouraging non-traditional exports. The government`s different positions on the WTO agricultural negotiations were expressed in a series of official proposals from 2000 and 2001. A section of these government proposals is summarized here. The proposals of the WTO Africa Group, a development group (composed of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Kenya, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Uganda and Zimbabwe), as well as separate proposals from Mali, Kenya and India, all have a similar agenda. They are presented here as proposals for developing countries, with specific references where different approaches stand out. .