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Who Signed The Kyoto Agreement In 1997 Over Carbon Emissions

In 2005, many countries, including those in the EU, planned to meet or exceed the agreement`s targets by 2011. Others, such as the United States and China – the world`s largest emitters – have produced enough greenhouse gases to mitigate the progress of countries that have met their targets. In fact, global emissions increased by about 40% between 1990 and 2009. However, the Kyoto Protcol targets are being challenged by climate change deities, who condemn strong scientific evidence of the human impact on climate change. An eminent scholar believes that these climate change deniers are “good” in violation of Roussau`s idea of the social contract, which is an implicit agreement between members of a society to coordinate efforts in the name of general social utility. The movement to reject climate change is hampering efforts to reach an agreement on climate change as a global collective society. [139] Like the previous Kyoto Protocol, the Paris climate agreement has been the subject of much criticism. For example, it is criticized that the agreement simply requires a country to make a declaration, that it wants to work later to reduce CO2 emissions so that it is considered to be in compliance with the requirements of the agreement. On the other hand, countries currently have nothing to do to reduce CO2 emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly in several major developing countries and in fast-growing economies (China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Iran) (PBL, 2009).

[116] As a result, emissions in China increased sharply during the 1990-2005 period, often by more than 10% per year. Per capita emissions in non-Schedule I countries remain, for the most part, well below those in industrialized countries. Non-Schedule I countries do not have quantitative commitments to reduce emissions, but they are committed to mitigating measures. China, for example, has a national policy program to reduce emissions growth, which included the closure of older, less efficient coal-fired power plants. In the non-binding “Washington Declaration” agreed on 16 February 2007, the leaders of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa agreed on the principle of a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. They envisaged a global cap-and-trade system that would apply to both developed and developing countries, and initially hoped that it would be in place by 2009. [141] [142] Gupta et al. (2007)[118] stated that the Kyoto commitments in the first round were “modest” and expressed the effectiveness of the treaty. It was suggested that subsequent Kyoto commitments could be made more effective by measures to reduce emissions more, as well as by implementing policies to a greater share of global emissions. [118] In 2008, countries with a Kyoto ceiling accounted for less than one-third of annual global carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion.

[119] The protocol was adopted by UNFCCC COP 3 on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.